The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis

Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood tree. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mb genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defense against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of preserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscores the high interspecific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the early diverging rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

Myburg, A.A., Grattapaglia, D., Tuskan, G., Hellsten, U., Hayes, R.D., Grimwood, J., Jenkins, B., Lindquist, E., Tice, H., Bauer, D., Goodstein, D., Dubchak, I., Poliakov, A., Mizrachi, E., Kullan, A.R.K., van Jaarsveld, I., Hussey, S.G., Pinard, D., van der Merwe, K., Singh, N., Silva-Junior, O.B., Togawa, R.C., Pappas, M.R., Faria, D.A., Sansaloni, C.P., Petrol, C.D., Yang, X., Ranjan, P., Tschaplinski, T.J., Ye, Z., Li, T., Sterck, L., Vanneste, K., Murat, C., Soler, M., San Clemente, H., Saidi, N., Cassan-Wang, H., Dunand, C., Hefer, C.A., Bornberg-Bauer, E., Kersting, A.R., Vining, K., Amarasinghe, V., Ranik, M., Naithani, S., Elser, J., Boyd, A.E., Liston, A., Spatafora, J.W., Dharmwardhana, P., Raja, R., Sullivan, C., Romanel, E., Alves-Ferreira, M., Külheim, C., Foley, W., Carocha, V., Paiva, J., Kudrna, D., Brommonschenkel, S.H., Pasquali, G., Byrne, K., Rigault, P., Tibbits, J., Spokevicius, A., Jones, R.C., Steane, D.A., Vaillancourt, R.E., Potts, B.M., Joubert, Y., Barry, K., Pappas Jr., G.J., Strauss, S.H., Jaiswal, P., Grima-Pettenati, J., Salse, J., Van de Peer, Y., Rokhsar, D., Schmutz, J. (2014) The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis. Nature 510(7505):356–362.

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