Laccaria bicolor

Taxonomy: Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Agaricomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Agaricales; Tricholomataceae; Laccaria


Laccaria bicolor is a basidiomycete that forms ectomycorrhizal associations with different northern forest trees. Because of this it is commonly exploited in forest nurseries to enhance the growth of the seedlings (as a soil inoculant). It is a model organism to study this kind of symbiotic association.

In L. bicolor, single meiospores germinate to produce haploid, monokaryotic mycelia. Two complex mating-type factors control sexual compatibility in the monokaryons and regulate the maintenance of the dikaryotic state. Fusion of sexually compatible haploid monokaryotic mycelia results in the formation of the dikaryotic mycelium. The dikaryon is the predominant vegetative structure in L. bicolor and most other basidiomycetes. Under appropriate conditions, the dikaryon produces the fruit bodies within which meiosis occurs to produces spores. The monokaryotic and dikaryotic mycelia are capable of indefinite growth, allowing for the maintenance and duplication of the genotype of each ploidy state. The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is generally induced by dikaryotic mycelia.

While the genome was originally estimated to be 30-40Mbp it turned out to be ~65Mbp. The genome is sequenced using a whole genome shotgun approach. The genomic sequencing work has been conducted by scientists at the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California. A network of laboratories including our team, the Tree-Microbe Interactions Unit (INRA-Nancy), the University of Alabama, the Microbial Ecology Department (Lund University) and additional teams (Tuebingen University, Göttingen University, Lyon University) are involved in EST sequencing and the machine and manual annotation of the genome.

In collaboration with:



Martin, F., Aerts, A., Ahrén, D., Brun, A., Duchaussoy, F., Gibon, J., Kohler, A., Lindquist, E., Pereda, V., Salamov, A., Shapiro, H.J., Wuyts, J., Blaudez, D., Buée, M., Brokstein, P., Canbäck, B., Cohen, D., Courty, P.E., Coutinho, P., Danchin, E.G.J., Delaruelle, C., Detter, J., Deveau, A., DiFazio, S., Duplessis, S., Fraissinet-Tachet, L., Lucic, E., Frey-Klett, P., Fourrey, C., Feussner, I., Gay, G., Gérard, J., Grimwood, J., Hoegger, P.J., Jain, P., Kilaru, S., Labbé, J., Lin, Y.-C., Legué, V., F LeTacon, ., Marmeisse, R., Melayah, D., Montanini, B., Muratet, M., Nehls, U., Niculita-Hirzel, H., Oudot-LeSecq, M.P., Peter, G., Quesneville, H., Rajashekar, B., Reich, M., Rouhier, N., Schmutz, J., Yin, T., Chalot, M., Henrissat, B., Kües, U., Lucas, S., Van de Peer, Y., Podila, G., Polle, A., Pukkila, PJ., Richardson, P., Rouzé, P., Sanders, I., Stajich, J.E., Tunlid, A., Tuskan, G., Grigoriev, I. (2008) The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nature 452(7183):88-92.

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