Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine


Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to t\ housands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies, marker-assisted\ or genome-wide selection. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of highly-multiplexed SNP genotyping for genetic mapping in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), the main con\ ifer used for commercial plantation in southwestern Europe.


We designed a custom GoldenGate assay for 1,536 SNPs detected through the resequencing of gene fragments (707 in vitro SNPs/Indels) and from Sanger-derived Expressed Sequenced Ta\ gs assembled into a unigene set (829 in silico SNPs/Indels). Offspring from three-generation outbred (G2) and inbred (F2) pedigrees were genotyped. The success rate of the assay \ was 63.6% and 74.8% for in silico and in vitro SNPs, respectively. A genotyping error rate of 0.4% was further estimated from segregating data of SNPs belonging to the same gene.\ Overall, 394 SNPs were available for mapping. A total of 287 SNPs were integrated with previously mapped markers in the G2 parental maps, while 179 SNPs were localized on the ma\ p generated from the analysis of the F2 progeny. Based on 98 markers segregating in both pedigrees, we were able to generate a consensus map comprising 357 SNPs from 292 differen\ t loci. Finally, the analysis of sequence homology between mapped markers and their orthologs in a Pinus taeda linkage map, made it possible to align the 12 linkage groups of bot\ h species.


Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in maritime pine, a conifer species that has a genome seven times the si\ ze of the human genome. This SNP-array will be extended thanks to recent sequencing effort using new generation sequencing technologies and will include SNPs from comparative ort\ hologous sequences that were identified in the present study, providing a wider collection of anchor points for comparative genomics among the conifers.

Chancerel, E., Lepoittevin, C., Le Provost, G., Lin, Y.-C., Pablo Jaramillo-Correa, J., J Eckert, A., L Wegrzyn, J., Zelenika, D., Boland, A., Frigerio, J., Chaumeil, P., Garnier-Géré, P., Boury, C., Grivet, D., C González-Martínez, S., Rouzé, P., Van de Peer, Y., B Neale, D., T Cervera, M., Kremer, A., Plomion, C. (2011) Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine. BMC Genomics 12:368.

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